You can ask your consulate to issue you a codice fiscale; however, you will be cutting it close because it usually takes about six weeks to have it issued from a consulate. If not, you can apply for it in Italy. For the identity card, you must show proof of residence in Italy to your comune and the comune will issue you the identity card.
Hi Erica, glad you made it to Rome. You don't need citizenship to obtain a Codice Fiscale. You can apply for it at your local Agenzia del Entrate in Rome. This is within the Ministry of Finance department. If you're in a hotel, ask at the desk for directions to Agenzia del Entrate. Hope you're enjoying the Eternal City.
One other thing. If I were you, I would place a call from Rome once a week to your consulate asking for the status of your citizenship case and reminding them that you need it ASAP. Hopefully this will ensure that it really does get done by September/October.
Getting a number is not a problem. Go to http://www.paginebianche.it Click on Codice Fiscale and fill in the form. You won't get the official card, but you will get a number that you can use for renting an apartment.