You want to know how to distinguish between vedova being used as an adjective to mean widow and when it's used as a surname, right? My understanding is that for the former the word would not be capitalized ( e.g. Maria Rossi, vedova di Francesco Fontana ) and for the latter it would always be capitalized ( e.g. Maria Vedova ) .
I don't get on this forum very often anymore,but I saw your message and thought I'd tell you what I know. My paternal grandmothers Italian church death certificate says vedova Colombara which means she was at the time of her death the widow of my grandfather.Also my maternal grandmother was born in Chialamberto
It's nice to know that your family had roots in Chialamberto also.
My great grandmother was born there. I was able to find a passport with her name was Vitoria Vedova Casassa and my grandfathers name was Giuseppe Casassa . She and her husband traveled to France from there. I am puzzled though because her surname was Perrone( father was Domenico) and her mothers was Perroto (Lucia). Might your family have heard of those names??