As a nation state, Italy has emerged only in 1871. Until then the country was politically divided into a large number of independant cities, provinces and islands. The currently available evidences point out to a dominant Etruscan, Greek and Roman cultural influence on today's Italians.
While it is sometimes difficult to find something written about a particular town, you can get a good overview with some of the books written about the time.
I would recommend: Fate and Honor, Family and Village: Demographic and Cultural Change in Rural Italy since 1800 by Rudolph M. Bell (copyright 1979) University of Chicago Press
He gives great insight into what he feels are the four words that "capture the essence of the Italian peasant's response to life: fortuna, onore, famiglia and campanilismo." He does this through the study of four villages in locations throughout Italy. The villages are Albareto in Emilia-Romagna (north); Castel San Giorgio in Campania (near Naples); Rogliano in Calabria (toe of the boot); and Nissoria in Sicily.