As a nation state, Italy has emerged only in 1871. Until then the country was politically divided into a large number of independant cities, provinces and islands. The currently available evidences point out to a dominant Etruscan, Greek and Roman cultural influence on today's Italians.
I have been reading on websites the history of central Italy, specifically Abruzzo, which can be different then the southern or northern regions when it comes to land ownership. I read that originally, the ruling king rented to the Noble class and Noble class in turned rented to the "peasant class". I read that at "some point" many of the "tenant farmers" and Massaro in northern and central Italy were allowed buy land from their masters and to "own" land in their name.
For instance, I read that in Abruzzo, "Since 1754, cadastre onciario learn that the class that we have defined bourgeois was represented mainly by massari" but they did not own the land, they rented from a "master" or Baron and the Baron rented from the ruling foreign king.
I read that in 1806 is when Joseph Boneparte became the ruler and abolished fiefdoms, in all of Italy, but by 1815 this was reversed by king Ferdinand for Southern Italy (which sometimes includes Abruzzo and sometimes does not.)
But then I read this, "Finally, in 1705, it (Pescasseroli, L'Aquila, Abruzzo) becomes property of the mass of Sorrento on payment of 15,760 ducats, and remains to this family until 1806, the year of the abolition of the fiefs. In the years immediately following the place of the feudal lord is taken by a powerful middle-class family, the (Sipari) curtains, rich armentara and owners of vast tracts of land in Apulia." http://www.terremarsicane.it/node/2904
What does armentara mean?
But this quote still showed most of the land in this area was owned by the Sipari family or the "City Council". Anyone know when the small farmers come to own their own land? Was it after Unification?