As a nation state, Italy has emerged only in 1871. Until then the country was politically divided into a large number of independant cities, provinces and islands. The currently available evidences point out to a dominant Etruscan, Greek and Roman cultural influence on today's Italians.
What is the difference (is there a difference?) between a cafone, a peasant, and a contadino, a peasant farmer? The research I have found does not clearly define the the difference between these terms.
contadino=peasant cafone=pesant (also) but normally the "contadino" was a man that working in own farm or working in a farm of another owner; instead the "cafone" was a peasant (as contadino) but the word meaning a peasant of a very, more humble condition, illiterate...
the word origin is: "ca' fune" ( with rope) for to say a people that used the rope for the pants instead of to use the belt. suanj