italian musician boys: the contract

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suanj
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italian musician boys: the contract

Post by suanj »

hi to all,
I found a interesting copy ( conserved in Genova archive-and transcripted by Liceo Chiabrera= source) of a contract between a father and a recruiter; this abt the italian musician boys in UK.

From this document, what is interesting, it is especially the ignorance of father, in the sense of illeteracy and ingenuity... how it could think that the recruiter left the boys in Italy? the truth that the recruiter wanted to leave the country, it is launch in the contract only like a hypothesis ... and also so much power to another person, no relative... the father transferred the full potestà to an guy that did not know, for a derisive sum...
the translation maybe is no perfect but I hope understandable.. the surnames are omissis... the complete txt is in above mentioned source.
I believe that the father never review the sons.....

L’anno 1866, il dì 30 settembre, in Viggiano.
The year 1866, the day 30 september, in Viggiano town.
Colla presente benché privata scrittura ed atto in doppio originale: si dichiara da Pasquale [...] fu Nicola da una parte, e Pietro [...] dall’altra, ambi da Viggiano, che sono venuti al seguente contratto:


With the present although private document and act in double original: it is declared from Pasquale [... ] late Nicola from a part, and Pietro[... ] from the other, ambles from Viggiano, that they have come to following contract:
Esso Pasquale [...] ha in presenza dei qui sottoscritti testimoni dichiarato, che dovendo per qualche tempo girare pel regno, oppure fuori regno per lucrarsi il vitto in qualità di musicante e dovendo all’oggetto portare alcuni garzoni, così ha chiesto il cennato Pietro [...] che gli venisse dato i suoi figli a nome Francesco e Vincenzo [...] anche musicanti, uno di violino e l’altro d’arpa;


He Pasquale [... ] has here in presence of underwrite the witnesses declared, that having for some time to turn in the Reign, or outside Reign for gain the food in quality of musician and having to carry some labourers, therefore has asked indicated Pietro [... ] that came given the its sons, of first names: Francesco and Vincenzo [... ] also musicians, one for violin and the other of harp.
il quale di buon grado vi è condisceso, con patto però che il Pasquale [...] dovrà trattare i ragazzi suddetti come propri figli, come pure li dovrà calzare, vestire e somministrargli tutti i mezzi necessari al vitto.
which of good degree it has consented, with pact but that the Pasquale [... ] will have to deal the aforesaid boys like own sons, as also it will have to wear them, to dress and to give all necessary means to the food.

Che per compenso e mercede del servizio prestante durante il termine di anni tre a contare dal dì della partenza, il padrone [...] si obbliga consegnare in mano del genitore Pietro [...] ducati 114 per tutti gli anni tre dandoli ancora qualche cosa di denaro in conto,
That for remuneration and payment of the service lend during the term of years three to count from the departure day, the master [... ] obligates itself to deliver in hand of the Pietro father[... ] $114 for all 3 years and giving still some money in account,
ogni qualvolta il Pasquale [...] manderà alla moglie, e finito l’intrapreso viaggio dovrà ricondurre seco alla famiglia i ragazzi surriferiti dandogli un vestito nuovo ed un altro usato, secondo la stagione che sarà, ed il violino nuovo, e l’arpa pure nuova del valore di dieci ducati, e valendo di più si dovrà valutare e rifondere dal Pietro [...]
everytime the Pasquale [... ] will send to the wife, and ended the undertaken travel will have to lead back with he to the family the above-mentioned boys given a new clothing and another used, second the season that will be, and violin new, and also new harp of the value of $10, and being worth it will have to be estimated and to be more repaid from Peter [...

quanto costerà più di 10 ducati; con spiega che se i ragazzi rompessero gli istrumenti per casualità li dovrà accomodare il padrone a suo conto, e rompendoli poi per scherzo o per loro capriccio, anderanno a carico del Pietro [...] come ancora se nella estranea ipotesi i ragazzi cadessero ammalati per quindici giorni, o per un mese, non se ne parla, ma altresì essendo di più li deve guidare sì il padrone ma i ragazzi perdono le mesate, purché sia malattia che loro manda Iddio,

how much will cost more than 10 $; with it explains then that if the boys broke off the struments for chance them must repair the master to its account, and breaking off them for joke or they whim, they will go to charge of Pietro [... ] like again if in the stranger hypothesis the boys fell sicken for fifteen days, or a month, it does not speak, but also being more them must guide yes the master but the boys forgiveness the month's job, provided that it is disease that they sends God,


ma se se la procurano essi, tutta la spesa che correrà andrà a carico di Pietro [...] , spiegandosi pure che i cennati ragazzi dovranno essere ubbidienti al padrone nel travagliare, e sera per sera dovranno consegnare nelle mani dello stesso, tutto ciò che si lucreranno, senza profittarsi in menoma parte di quello che lucreranno;
but if they supplies , all the expense that will run goes to Pietro name[... ], explaining itself also that the above mentioned boys will have to be obedient to the master in working, and evening for evening will have to deliver in the hands of the same master, all that they will earn , without to take advantage in disables part of what they will earn;
e se i ragazzi si profittassero di un grano, il padrone avrà la facoltà ritenersi dalle mesate un carlino, e profittandosi di un carlino, si riterrà 10 carlini, e così via discorrendo, ed in ultimo si conclude che mancando ciascuna di esse parti, o in tutto o in parte a quanto sopra si è detto, e volendo i ragazzi lasciare il padrone senza essere maltrattati; oppure volesse il padrone maltrattare i ragazzi, oppure abbandonarli,
and if the boys profited themselves of a gain, the master will have the faculty to think from salary a $, and profiting itself of a $, he will think 10 $, and therefore via talking, and in last he is concluded that lacking anyone of this parts, or in all or part to how much over he has been said, and wanting the boys to leave the master without maltreatments; or the master wanted to maltreat the boys, or to abandon them,

si assoggettano scambievolmente ad una multa di ducati 30 a titolo di danni ed interessi anticipatamente liquidati, ed a cautela di ciò che si è detto, se n’è formata la presente sottoscritta dal Pasquale [...] e da due testimoni avendo il Pietro [...] asserito non sapere scrivere.
Seguono le firme dei due testimoni e del reclutatore.
a fine of $ 30 mutually are submitted to purpose of damages and interests in advance liquidated, and to caution of that it has been said, if it is formed the present act undersigned by Pasquale [... ] and from two witnesses having Pietro [... ] assert not to know writing. They follow the signatures of the two witnesses and the recruiter.
[hr]
your suggestions? Thanks, suanj
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Re: italian musician boys: the contract

Post by Cathynap »

That is fascinating - thanks for sharing. Ireally enjoyed it
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Re: italian musician boys: the contract

Post by suanj »

yes Cathynap
it is fascinating... the italian musicians boys came in first time in France and/or Switzerland and after in UK; so much of this boys never back in Italy, and from what i know, after the organ grinder profession, they made the ice cream vendors, when the music was no more profitable for a decent life... ... regards, suanj
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Re: italian musician boys: the contract

Post by joetucciarone »

Hi suanj - I just found your 14-year-old post about the September 30, 1866 contract in which the illiterate father leased his two boys to a padrone. Did you notice the contract was approved by "The Royal Italian Consul General, Ferdinando De Luca"? In the early 1870s, De Luca was the Italian Consul General in New York City. Here's an article, "The Little Italian Slaves," from the September 6, 1873 edition of the Boston Pilot:

https://newspapers.bc.edu/?a=d&d=pilot1 ... ians------

The second column describes how De Luca began his diplomatic career in the United States. It says he was so poor he had to borrow money, but after he was assigned as Consul General in New York City, he became wealthy. The newspaper reporter noted that his change in fortune coincided with the sudden appearance in New York of many Italian child musicians.
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Re: italian musician boys: the contract

Post by suanj »

joetucciarone wrote: 24 May 2021, 12:49 Hi suanj - I just found your 14-year-old post about the September 30, 1866 contract in which the illiterate father leased his two boys to a padrone. Did you notice the contract was approved by "The Royal Italian Consul General, Ferdinando De Luca"? In the early 1870s, De Luca was the Italian Consul General in New York City. Here's an article, "The Little Italian Slaves," from the September 6, 1873 edition of the Boston Pilot:

https://newspapers.bc.edu/?a=d&d=pilot1 ... ians------

The second column describes how De Luca began his diplomatic career in the United States. It says he was so poor he had to borrow money, but after he was assigned as Consul General in New York City, he became wealthy. The newspaper reporter noted that his change in fortune coincided with the sudden appearance in New York of many Italian child musicians.
no I have no infos abt that.. in the past the pater familias, family's father, had power on the his children.. and they was in large part poors and very ignorants and illitterates... pratically the child was in sale.. I remember that I read of a child that with others made the musician for the patron, and they was like a Tom Sawyer ... and on then find another ex slave like him, in the Santos port asking charity and blind.. but the boys was no blind, someone blinded him, easy to think he was the boss .. they weren't child labor contracts they were sales contracts disguised as an employment contract and who knows if they weren't even pedophiles ... usually when they reached the age of majority or near the age of majority they were let loose. Because children are tender when they all play tattered and dirty and people give coins but to a young man they say "go to work" .. many of these children died or lost track of them. it was a slave sale. Ignorance and poverty were too great .. and the slave masters, who knew how to deceive, too cunning ..

I know that they, the bosses required a passport even for the children and showed the contract that qualified them as workers .. they invaded the squares of the great European cities ... so much so that the residents showed contempt and asked that they be removed .. They took these children in the poor neighborhoods especially in Basilicata and Liguria and Tuscany ... from abruzzo they left with the bear tamers. They treated the bear better than the baby. Organ players departed from the countryside of Lazio or upper Molise .. and also bagpipes .. from Basilicata shoulder harp players, especially from the area of ​​Viggiano and Marsicovetere ... in short, an endless sadness. WHEN A STATE DOES NOT ALLOW FREEDOM AND SUBSISTENCE TO ITS CHILDREN THAT STATE BETWEEN NO YES DECLARE THEY WILL PULL IT IS in fact and required that they do military service and war but then did not give their jobs and made laws for which children were in fact sold . Here this is a shameful page of history for Italy.
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Re: italian musician boys: the contract

Post by joetucciarone »

Hi suanj - It's also a tragic bit of American history. The Italian child musicians were abused in America, and some ran away from their bosses. The following reward was posted in the August 14, 1869 issue of the New York Herald; Orazio Stigliano offered $100 for the return of his "lost" Italian child musician. Note that he said, "I caution the public not to harbor or detain him." I've collected almost 100 other advertisements like this, all in the New York Herald, dated from 1859 to 1878. Other subscribers like Stigliano also added warnings to their advertisements, like:

“Any persons harboring him after this date will be prosecuted by law.”
“I forbid any one harboring them.”

Sometimes blatant references to the child's recapture were included:

“Any information that can lead to his apprehension will receive the above reward..."
“Any one that will arrest him and bring him to his father, or give information of his whereabouts, will receive the above reward at 56 Crosby street.”
14AUG1869_lost_Italian_reward.jpg
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Re: italian musician boys: the contract

Post by suanj »

Terrific! These people was pedophiles surely. No one with wife, so.. Probably pedophiles. I cannot think what kind of troubles passed these poor boys. I don't remember where but I remember that some boy killed his bad patron, abuses due!
Joe I believe that needsto write a book abt that sad argument. Because anyone must know.
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Re: italian musician boys: the contract

Post by erudita74 »

Related reading:

The Little Slaves of the Harp by Professor John E Zucchi
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Re: italian musician boys: the contract

Post by joetucciarone »

Thanks, erudita, that is a good book about the traffic in enslaved Italian children. And here's an 1872 New York Sun article published at the height of the trade:

https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn ... nge&page=1
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Re: italian musician boys: the contract

Post by PippoM »

I've just bought the book online, and looking forward for it to arrive!
Giuseppe "Pippo" Moccaldi

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Re: italian musician boys: the contract

Post by joetucciarone »

In 1873, two boys ran away from Antonia Briglia of Crosby Street, New York. The descriptions of both include a cut on the upper lip. I read that some padrones did this on purpose so their slaves could be easily recognized. In 1878, the Briglia's were arrested for the cruel treatment of child musicians. Most likely, Antonia Briglia was not the parent of the seven-year-old runaway.
3JUL1873_reward_Italian_boys.jpg
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